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As it was, that line, between the bomb as “just another weapon” and something “special,” was negotiated over time . I think the demonstration option was, for this reason, never really going to be on the table: it would have forced the American policymakers to come to terms with whether the atomic bomb was a weapon suitable for warfare on an earlierschedule than they were prepared to. As it was, their imagery, language, and deliberations are full of ambiguity on this. Sometimes they thought it would have new implications for“man’s position in theuniverse” (and other “special bomb” notions), sometimes they thought it was just an expedient form of firebombing with extra propaganda value because it would be very bright and colorful. Secrecy enabled them to hedge their bets on this question, for better or worse.

Without imagery like this, would the world fear nuclear weapons more, or less?When, if ever, would the first use of nuclear weapons in warfare have been?

So who was right? I don’t know. We can’t replay history to see what happened, obviously. I think the idea of a demonstration is an interesting expression of a certain type of ethicalideal, though it went so far against the practical desires of the military and political figures that it is hard to imagine any way it would have been pursued. I am not sure it would even have been successful, or resolved the moral bind of the atomic bomb.

I do find myself somewhat agreeing with those scientists who said that perhaps it was better to draw blood with the smaller, cruder bombs, before the really big ones came around — and they knew those were coming.If we didn’t have Hiroshima and Nagasaki, what would we point to, to talk about why not to use nuclear weapons? Would people think the bombs were not that impressive, or even more impressive than they were? I don’t know, but there is something to the notion thatknowing the gritty, gruesome reality (and its limitations) is better than not.It took the Holocaust for the world to (mostly) renounce genocide, maybe it took Hiroshima and Nagasaki for the nuclear taboo to be established (arguably). That, perhaps, is the most hopeful argument here, the one that sees Hiroshima and Nagasaki as not just the first cities to be atomic bombed, but the last , but I am sure this is little solace to the people who were in those cities at the time.


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, Hiroshima , J. Robert Oppenheimer , Leslie Groves , Manhattan Project , Metallurgical Laboratory , Nagasaki , Speculation , Trinity

This entry was posted on Friday, March 6th, 2015 at 11:21 am and is filed under Redactions . You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed. Citation: Alex Wellerstein, "To demonstrate, or not to demonstrate?," Restricted Data: The Nuclear Secrecy Blog , March 6, 2015, accessed July 23, 2018, http://blog.nuclearsecrecy.com/2015/03/06/to-demonstrate-or-not-to-demonstrate/ .

1Thessalonians 5:12,13

We help our children draw closer to Jehovah when we warmly encourage them (See paragraph14)

14. What examples show that it is good to commend others when we are giving them counsel?

14 On one occasion, the apostle Paul had to give the Corinthians counsel. When they applied that counsel, Paul commended them. ( 2Corinthians 7:8-11 ) Surely, his words encouraged them to continue doing what was right. Today, elders and parents can follow Paul’s example. Andreas, who has two children, says: “Encouragement helps children to grow up spiritually and emotionally. You nail down counsel by giving encouragement. Even though our kids know what is right, doing the right thing becomes their way of life through our constant encouragement.”


15. What is one way we can encourage others?

Tell your brothers and sisters how much you value their efforts and their good qualities. ( Teva Hurricane XLT Infinity Womens 6wfMT
Job 1:8 ) If we do this, we imitate Jehovah and Jesus. They value everything we do for them, even if we cannot do as much as we would like to. (Read Luke 21:1-4; 2Corinthians 8:12 .) For example, we know that it takes a lot of effort for our dear older ones to come to the meetings and go out in the ministry regularly. Do we encourage them and commend them for all they do?

16. When can we encourage others?

Encourage others as often as possible. Whenever you notice something that a person did well, be sure to commend him. When Paul and Barnabas were at Antioch in Pisidia, the leaders of the synagogue there told them: “Men, brothers, if you have any word of encouragement for the people, tell it.” Paul used that opportunity to encourage the people. ( Acts 13:13-16, 42-44 ) When we encourage others, people will likely encourage us too.​— Luke 6:38 .

17. What is the best way to commend others?

Be specific. When Jesus commended the Christians in Thyatira, he was specific and explained what they had done well. (Read Revelation 2:18,19 .) How can we imitate him? Perhaps we could commend a single mother for the way she raises her children despite how difficult it is for her. Or if you are a parent, you could commend your children for their efforts to serve Jehovah. Explain to them what good things you have noticed. If we are specific when we encourage others, they will know that we mean what we say.

18,19. How can we help one another to stay close to Jehovah?

Jehovah told Moses to encourage and strengthen Joshua. Of course, Jehovah will not speak to us today and tell us to encourage a certain person. But he is pleased when he sees the efforts we make to encourage others. ( Proverbs 19:17; Hebrews 12:12 ) For example, when a brother gives a public talk in our congregation, we can tell him what we enjoyed about his talk. Perhaps what he said helped us to cope with a problem or to understand a certain scripture. One sister wrote to a brother who had given a talk: “Although we spoke for only a few minutes, you saw my heavy heart, and you comforted and uplifted me. I want you to know that when you spoke in such a kind way, both from the platform and in person, I felt that it was a gift from Jehovah.”

We will be able to help one another stay close to Jehovah if we follow Paul’s counsel: “Keep encouraging one another and building one another up, just as you are in fact doing.” ( Mens Nunn Bush Denzel Kiltie Loafer Size 105 W Cognac Leather FTQXVSab4g
) If we “keep on encouraging one another each day,” we will make Jehovah very happy!

[1] (paragraph1) Some names have been changed.


To make others feel better. By what we say and do, we help them to keep doing what is good and to keep serving Jehovah. We let others know that they are loved and valued by us, by the congregation, and by Jehovah and Jesus

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Geoff Teehan
Product Design Director, Facebook. Co-founded Teehan+Lax in 2002.

I come to Facebook to share all kinds of things with people I care about — from celebratory posts about practicing yoga for 60 days straight, to mourning the loss of a parent. Those same people who connect with me on my stories also have their own stories to share. Sometimes we just want a simple way to say we really love what they shared, or to express empathy when life takes a turn.In 2009, Facebook introduced a button that allowed people to give feedback to their friends’ posts. We called it Like, and people liked it a lot. It’s simple and effortless to scroll down your News Feed and tap the little thumb to acknowledge what your friend posted. Sometimes it can be tough to know what to say; or maybe you don’t really have much to say and you just want to let someone know you heard them. That’s what the Like button does so well. It is simple and frictionless.But, not everything in life is Likable.

It was time to look beyond theLike.

People had told us that they’d like more ways to express themselves on Facebook. About a year ago, Mark brought together a team of people to start thinking seriously about how to make the Like button more expressive. We were excited to start this process — It’s not every day you get the chance to work on such an important piece of a company’s product.

We knew at the onset that this project would be challenging. There were obvious challenges like making the solution work on various platforms and across a host of devices, both old and new. Then there were more challenging aspects to figure out. For instance, we have spent a lot of time refining the Like, Comment, Share buttons so that it’s easy to use and understand. It is a surface that is interacted with a lot, so any change will affect the understandability and usability of millions of people’s actions. We needed to thoughtfully curate any change so it felt like a natural evolution, taking care not to feel abrupt or disrupt everyone on our platform.

There were other questions that would need to be answered: What would the reactions be? How will people understand them globally? How can people best consume Reactions? How can people easily leave a Reaction? These are complex questions to be solved, all while keeping the mechanics of Liking easy.

Like all good design, the process of getting to a simple solution is complex.

It was incredibly important to be empathetic here and it’s why we did so many iterations, and took the amount of time we did. The whole point of expanding reactions is to have a universally understood vocabulary with which anyone can better and more richly express themselves.We broke the problem down into two distinct pieces and began to work them in parallel:

For both of these tracks, we came up with key principles that we’d use as a playbook by which we operated. These principles acted as a guide for our team and helped us clarify decisions throughout the life of the project. They wouldn’t explicitly tell us what the final solution , but they would hint at what it and provide a direction for us all to head in.

Principles, combined with insights from empirical research and data, along side the instincts and knowledge gleaned from the talented industry elites here at Facebook was how we’d solve this. As such, the team we created included researchers, content strategists, engineers, and my main design team: Andy Chung, Brandon Walkin and Brian Frick.

The Reactions

Here are the principles that guided us in determining the set of reactions we are rolling out with now:

We first needed to consider how many different reactions we should include. This might seem like a pretty straightforward task: Just slap a thumbs down next to the Like button and ship it. It’s not nearly that simple though. People need a much higher degree of sophistication and richness in what choices we provide for their communications. Binary ‘like’ and ‘dislike’ doesn’t properly reflect how we react to the vast array of things we encounter in our real lives.Even though this wasn’t going to be binary, was this going to be like emoji, where people have hundreds to choose from? Probably not. Amongst other reasons, having hundreds of reactions to choose from could mean each post had dozens of different types of reactions left on it, which would be difficult to consume in News Feed. Additionally, the more reactions we offered, the less likely they would all be universally understood.For more than a year, we have been conducting international research to explore what types of reactions people might find most appealing. Here are some of the things we looked into:

Top Stickers We looked in aggregate at top stickers and emojis to get signal on what types of “reactions” people were already using on Facebook.

Most Used Search Terms for Stickers While less common, we also looked at what terms people searched for when using stickers:

Top short comments We also took an anonymized global sample of commonly used, short comments. These gave us some of the specific language that people use to express themselves, and helped us understand more fully the context in which people use these types of comments. Here’s an example of some short comments we saw from the U.S.

In addition to analyzing samples, we did international surveys, talked to people, and worked with our internationalization team. From here, we narrowed the set down to a more refined list:

You may have noticed that there are two reactions from that list that aren’t in what we released in this week’s launch: “Confused” and “Yay”. In testing, “Confused” was used so rarely that it didn’t make sense to include it given the cognitive load adding additional reactions has. Each reaction needs to serve a unique purpose for most people, and “Confused” didn’t end up doing that. “Yay” was tough to justify too. It wasn’t as easy to understand or internationalize, and it would often overlap with “Haha” or even “Like”. The system was just better as a whole without these two for now. The Illustrations Another crucial component was what reactions should look like. We wanted to create illustrations that were unique to Facebook, but we also wanted them to live gracefully in the ecosystem, and be easily and universally understood. Here was an initial direction:

Our initial illustrations weren’t communicating what they were intended to communicate to when they were seen at a relatively small size. They had served their purpose as placeholders as we designed the system, but it was time to start iterating on these.The challenges here included figuring out what style would be appropriate to encompass across the set, and still have each individually and clearly express the intended reaction. Overlapping how we expressed the reactions was also something we encountered. The tiniest design tweak to one reaction could make it look too similar to another, or even end up not expressing the reaction at all. “Wow” could start to bump into “Yay” and “Yay” could look like “Haha” just by changing the curve of a smile or the squint of an eye.

What are the reactions we will use beyond Like

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